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Chapter 1

  1. One recent source about the size of the game audience in the United States is a report titled Online Gaming 2008, from the NPD Group (Port Washington, NY). Its study was based on a survey of 5,039 people from a larger consumer survey panel. The group reported that 63 percent of the U.S. population aged fifteen to sixty-five plays some type of online or video game.
  2. The most sophisticated games that have inspired this book are known as massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), although many use the letters MMO for short. This note lists references and websites that contain pictures, stories, game current events, industry trends, and bibliographies. We particularly highlight those that have pictures because we decided early in this project that we couldn't do justice to the visual interest of games in a book. General references include the following:

    http://www.mmorpg.com (general information about a variety of MMOs)

    http://gaming.alltop.com (a comprehensive compilation of game-related news)

    http://www.allakhazam.com (general MMO information)

    http://terranova.blogs.com (contributions from the best academics, designers, and journalists about trends in MMOs; links in the left-hand column of the home page lead to over fifty of the top titles)

    The following are links for playing in the top-selling MMO title, World of Warcraft. They describe guild activities, contain pictures and movies of game play, and provide advice about how to organize winning teams. The details on these websites may be daunting to the uninitiated, but you can learn a lot by just exploring.

    http://www.worldofraids.com (news site for up-to-the-hour updates of developments in the game)

    http://www.wowwiki.com (this site is player updated and contains useful information that can be applied quickly during action)

    You can also go to YouTube (www.youtube.com) and type in the name of a popular game. There are usually hundreds of videos available that show play in the top titles (for example,World of Warcraft, EverQuest II, or EVE OnlineOnline). All of the games have introduction movies, also usually available at YouTube. Search by the name of the game and "intro movie" (e.g., World of Warcraft intro movie).
  3. Twelve million people subscribe to World of Warcraftby Blizzard Entertainment. This is the most popular current title in the genre of MMORPGs. These are the games, rather than solo games, that are the major inspiration for our thesis.
  4. The decline of command and control organizations is treated in detail in Thomas Malone, The Future of Work: How the New Order of Business Will Shape Your Organization, Your Management Style, and Your Life (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004).
  5. J. L. Read, C. Carlin, I. Greenberg, and G. Blackburn, The Original Boston Computer Diet (Boston: Scarborough Systems, 1985).
  6. Orson Scott Card, Ender's Game (New York: Tor Books, 2006). The book was originally published by Tor in 1985.
  7. The Last Starfighter, directed by Nick Castle (Universal, 1984).
  8. War Games, directed by John Badham (United Artists, 1983).
  9. Luis von Ahn, "Games with a Purpose," Computer 39, no. 6 (2006): 92-94.
  10. You can play Ahn's games online at http://www.gwap.com.
  11. Julian Birkenshaw and Stuart Crainer, "Theory Y Meets Generation Y," Labnotes, Issue 10, December 20, 2008, http://www.managementlab.org/files/LabNotes10.pdf. The Microsoft team website is http://www.42projects.org/8.html.
  12. These projects are covered in Byron Reeves and Thomas Malone, "Leadership's Online Labs," Harvard Business Review, May 2008, 58-66; and Byron Reeves, Simon Roy, Brian Gorman, and Teresa Morley, "A Marketplace for Attention: Responses to a Synthetic Currency Used to Signal Information Importance in E-mail," First Monday 13, no. 5 (2008). 13. Dimitri Williams, Nick Yee, and Scott Caplan, "Who Plays, How Much, and Why? A Behavioral Player Census of a Virtual World," Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 13, no. 4 (2008): 993-1018.
  13. A new book on games and business that contains many additional examples of how games can be used to relate to customers and to recruit and train employees is Changing the Game, by David Edery and Ethan Mollick (Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press, 2009).

Chapter 2

  1. 1. Data about the number of people who inhabit virtual worlds and games is notoriously unreliable or absent. Christian Renaud, in a presentation at the 2007 Virtual Worlds Conference in San Jose, estimated that the total number of people with avatars exceeded 400 million - that is, if you use only data provided by publishers of the software. He also noted that that figure was likely too high but in any case was into the hundreds of millions. The main focus of his presentation was an argument that much better metrics were needed before these technologies can gain serious attention in business. We agree.
  2. Game industry data are from the Entertainment Software Association (www.theese.com/facts/salesandgenre.asp) and was compiled by the NPD Group.
  3. Blizzard Entertainment, "World of Warcraft: Wrath of the Lich King Shatters Day-1 Sales Record," Business Wire, November 20, 2008, http://investor.activision.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=349190.
  4. Martin Olausson, "Online Games: Global Market Forecast," Strategy Analytics, August 23, 2007, http://www.strategyanalytics.com/default.aspx?mod=ReportAbstractViewer&a0=3559.
  5. Julian Dibbell, "The Life of the Chinese Gold Farmer," New York Times Magazine, June 17, 2007.
  6. Edward Castronova, "Virtual Worlds: A First-Hand Account of the Market and Society on the Cyberian Frontier," CESifo Working Paper Series no. 618, Ifo Institute for Economic Research, Munich, 2001.
  7. See, for example, David Barboza, "Ogre to Slay? Outsource It to Chinese," New York Times, December 9, 2005.
  8. Dimitri Williams, Nick Yee, and Scott Caplan, "Who Plays, How Much, and Why? A Behavioral Player Census of a Virtual World," Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 13, no. 4 (2008): 993-1018.
  9. Data from the Entertainment Software Association (www.theesa.com/facts/gameplayer.asp).
  10. Gender statistics from various studies, as well as other MMO game demographics, are reviewed in Elaine Chan and Peter Vorderer, "Massively Multiplayer Games," in Playing Video Games, eds. Peter Vorderer and Jennings Bryant (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006). See also player statistics from the Entertainment Software Association (www.theesa.com/facts/gameplayer.asp), which reports that 44 percent of online game players overall are female.
  11. Daniel Terdiman, The Entrepreneur's Guide to Second Life: Making Money in the Metaverse (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008).
  12. Eric Reuters, "Second Life Growth Cools, Women Outnumbered 3-to-1," 2007. This article is written by the journalist (known in-world as Eric Reuters) who writes news stories for Reuters based on experiences in the virtual environment. They are posted at http://secondlife.reuters.com/.
  13. The original cartoon was by Peter Steiner and first appeared in The New Yorker, July 1993, 61.
  14. These statistics about income, education, and race come from D. Williams, N. Yee, and S. Caplan, "Who Plays, How Much, and Why? Debunking the Stereotypical Gamer Profile." Journal Computer Mediated Communication 13 (2008): 993-1018.
  15. Nick Yee, "The Demographics, Motivations and Derived Experiences of Users of Massively-Multiuser Online Graphical Environments," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 15 (2006): 309-329.
  16. Williams, et al., "Who Plays, How Much, and Why?"
  17. Some of the game features discussed here are based on an excellent review of game play, especially first encounters with games, in Edward Castronova, Synthetic Worlds (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005), chapter 2.
  18. Nicolas Ducheneaut and Nickolas Yee, "Collective Solitude and Social Networks in World of Warcraft," in Social Networking Communities and E-Dating Services: Concepts and Implications, eds. Celia Romm-Livermore and Kristina Setzekorn (Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2009), 78-100.
  19. There are three good references on the motivations for game play, with good agreement on the categories of motivation among the studies. The categories reviewed here are based on these studies. The links between player motivations and specific game features are based on Yee, "Demographics, Motivations and Derived Experiences." The studies are as follows:
    1. Richard Bartle, Designing Virtual Worlds (Indianapolis, IN: New Riders, 2003).
    2. Nick Yee, "The Demographics, Motivations, and Derived Experiences of Users of Massively Multi-User Online Graphical Environments," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 15 (2006): 309-329.
    3. Thomas Malone, "What Makes Things Fun to Learn: A Study of Intrinsically Motivating Computer Games," Pipeline 6, no. 2 (1981).
  20. Game mechanics are the various actions, behaviors, and control mechanisms afforded to the player within a game context. Together with the game's content (levels, assets, and so on) the mechanics support overall game play dynamics. See Robin Hunicke, Marc LeBlanc, and Robert Zubek, "MDA: A Formal Approach to Game Design and Game Research" (presented as part of the Game Design and Tuning Workshop at the Game Developers Conference, San Jose, CA, 2004). Available online at http://algorithmancy.8kindsoffun.com/MDAnwu.ppt.
  21. John C. Beck and Mitchell Wade, Got Game: How the Gamer Generation Is Reshaping Business (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004).
  22. Ron Alsop, The Trophy Kids Grow Up (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008).
  23. McKenzie Wark, Gamer Theory (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007).
  24. Percy Tannenbaum, ed., The Entertainment Functions of Television (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1980). chapter 1, "An Unobstructed Introduction to an Amorphous Area," reviews concerns about media effects in general. Also see chapter 9 by Leo Bogart ("Television News as Entertainment") for a discussion of how television news uses entertainment principles.

Chapter 3

  1. Michal Smith-Mello and Amy L Watts, Planning for the Future: Findings from Research on the Commonwealth's Current and Coming Retirees (Frankfort, KY: Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center, 2002). Data from the report cited here is available at http://www.kltprc.net/books/aging/gifs/pg2.htm.
  2. Louise Scheiner, Daniel Sichel, and Lawrence Slifman, "A Primer on the Macroeconomic Implications of Population Aging," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2007- 01, Divisions of Research and Statistics and Monetary Affairs, Federal Reserve Board, Washington, DC, 2007. The report is available at http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/FEDS/2007/200701/200701pap.pdf.
  3. Robert L. Cross, Roger D. Martin, and Leigh M. Weiss, "Mapping the Value of Employee Collaboration," McKinsey Quarterly, no. 3, August 2006. Also see Bradford C. Johnson, James M. Manyika, and Lareina A. Yee, "The Next Revolution in Interactions," McKinsey Quarterly, no. 4, November 2005, which is described briefly and critiqued by John Hagel at http://edgeperspectives.typepad.com/edge_perspectives/2006/04/the_next_revolu.html.
  4. Johnson, Manyika, and Yee, "The Next Revolution in Interactions."
  5. Lowell Bryan, McKinsey & Company (presentation at The Management Lab conference Inventing the Future of Management, Half Moon Bay, CA, May 2008). Described in the newsletter Labnotes from the London School of Economics, issue no. 9, September 2008, http://www.managementlab.org/files/LabNotes9.pdf.
  6. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Good Business: Leadership, Flow, and the Making of Meaning (New York: Penguin Books, 2003), 202-203.
  7. Cited in a 2001 survey of information work conducted by the Department of Commerce and the National Telecommunications Information Agency. See U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics press release, August 2, 2005, http://www.bls.gov/news.release/ciuaw.nr0.htm.
  8. Torkel Klingberg, The Overflowing Brain: Information Overload and the Limits of Working Memory (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008). Also see Kevin A. Miller, Surviving Information Overload: The Clear, Practical Guide to Help You Stay on Top of What You Need to Know (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2004).
  9. Mary Czerwinski, Edward Cutrell, and Eric Horvitz, "Instant Messaging and Interruption: Influence of Task Type on Performance," Microsoft Research, 2000, http://research.microsoft.com/~marycz/ozchi2000.pdf. See also Mary Czerwinski, Eric Horvitz, and Susan Wilhite, "A Diary Study of Task Switching and Interruptions," Microsoft Research, 2004 http://research.microsoft.com/users/marycz/chi2004diarystudyfinal.pdf; and Gloria Mark, Victor M. Gonzalez, and Justin Harris, "No Task Left Behind? Examining the Nature of Fragmented Work" (paper presented at CHI, Portland, OR, April 2005), http://www.ics.uci.edu/~gmark/CHI2005.pdf.
  10. Claudia Wallis and Sonja Steptoe, "Help! I've Lost My Focus," Time, January 10, 2006, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/printout/0,8816,1147199,00.html.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Good proposals for work taxonomies include the following: Robert P. Tett, Hal A. Guterman, Angela Bleier, and Patrick J. Murphy, "Development and Content Validation of a 'Hyperdimensional' Taxonomy of Managerial Competence," Human Performance 13, no. 3 (2000): 205-251; and R. J. Harvey, "Empirical Foundations for the Things-Data-People Taxonomy of Work" (paper presented at the annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Things, Data, and People: Fifty Years of a Seminal Theory, Chicago, IL, April 2004).
  13. The various O*NET taxonomies and descriptions of methods for updating taxonomies are available at http://www.onetcenter.org/overview.html.
  14. The O*NET approach is to identify generalized work activities (GWAs) and detailed work activities (DWAs) to summarize the broad and more specific types of job behaviors and tasks that may be performed within multiple occupations. Using this framework makes it possible to use a single set of descriptors to describe many occupations. For more details see "The O*NET Content Model," http://www.onetcenter.org/dl_files/ContentModel_DetailedDesc.pdf.
  15. Company of Heroes is a real-time strategy computer game set in World War II developed by Relic Entertainment and released in 2006. A 2007 expansion was Company of Heroes: Opposing Fronts.
  16. Diablo II: Lord of Destruction is a 1997 expansion pack for the action role-playing game Diablo II from Blizzard Entertainment.
  17. Guild Wars is a fantasy-themed multiplayer online role-playing game developed by ArenaNet and published by the Korean publisher NCsoft in various expansions from 2005 to 2007.
  18. Age of Empires III is a real-time strategy (RTS) game developed by Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft Game Studios in 2005. It is the third in a series portraying European colonization of the Americas.
  19. Counter-Strike is a first-person shooter game released commercially by Valve Corporation in 2000.
  20. Star Wars Galaxies is a multiplayer online game developed by Sony Online Entertainment based on the Star Wars franchise themes and published by LucasArts Entertainment in 2003.
  21. Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos is a strategy game released by Blizzard Entertainment in 2002 as a sequel in the Warcraft Universe series.
  22. EVE Online is a massively multiplayer online game set in outer space developed by CCP Games and released in 2003 by Simon & Schuster Interactive.
  23. Mount & Blade is a single-player action role-playing video game developed by Tale- Worlds (in Turkey) and published by Paradox Interactive in 2008.
  24. Described first in Labnotes from the London School of Economics, issue no. 9, September 2008, http://www.managementlab.org/files/LabNotes9.pdf. and subsequently by Gary Hamel, "Moon Shots for Management," Harvard Business Review, February, 2009.
  25. James C. Collins and Jerry I. Porras, Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies (New York: HarperBusiness, 1994). An update in the series, a book that directly addresses the creation of a sense of purpose, is Jerry Porras, Stewart Emery, and Mark Thompson, Success Built to Last: Creating a Life That Matters (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing, 2007).

Chapter 4

  1. The organization of memory and thinking in relation to people and social relationships often goes under the label of "social cognition." A good introduction to this area is Ziva Kunda, Social Cognition: Making Sense of People (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999).
  2. Sohye Lim and Byron Reeves, "Being in the Game: Effects of Avatar Choice and Point of View on Arousal Responses During Play" (paper presented to the Information Systems Division of the International Communication Association, San Francisco, CA, 2007).
  3. An example study involving arousal and memory is described in M. Bradley, M. Greenwald, M. Petry, and P. Lang, "Remembering Pictures: Pleasure and Arousal in Memory," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 18, no. 2 (1992): 379-390. For a theoretical treatment and review of arousal and memory in media research, see A. Lang, "The Limited Capacity Model of Mediated Message Processing," Journal of Communication 50, no. 1 (2000): 46-70.
  4. For a good discussion of the role of emotions and emotional intelligence in business, see Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee, Primal Leadership: Learning to Lead with Emotional Intelligence (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004).
  5. The theory behind this conclusion is reviewed in chapter 10 of this book. It is discussed extensively in Byron Reeves and Clifford Nass, The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television and New Media Like Real People and Places (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
  6. The comment from James Gee was made during a presentation to a meeting of Investigators in Health Games Research, a program sponsored by the Robert Woods Johnson Foundation, Baltimore, MD, May 2008.
  7. The calculation of the virtual size of World of Warcraft is posted at http://www.spaaace.com/cope/?p=111.
  8. Derek Clements-Croome, Creating the Productive Workplace (London: Taylor & Francis, 1999).
  9. For example, the World of Warcraft website (www.worldofwarcraft.com) has extensive coverage of the game backstory, character profiles, quests, place descriptions and more.
  10. For a basic introduction to the role of narrative in persuasion and psychology, see Annette Simmons, The Story Factor: Inspiration, Influence, and Persuasion Through the Art of Storytelling (New York: Basic Books, 2006). For a discussion of the use of stories in business practice, see Joan Margretta, "Why Business Models Matter," Harvard Business Review, May 2002.
  11. For a wonderful analysis of this topic by a master game designer, see Chris Crawford, Chris Crawford on Interactive Storytelling (Berkeley, CA: New Riders, 2005).
  12. For a summary of some of the psychological research about narrative, see Linda Alwitt, "Maintaining Attention to a Narrative Event," in Advances in Psychology Research, vol. 18, ed. S. Shohov (Huntington, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2002).
  13. Ann Lang, "How Story Impacts Emotional, Motivational and Physiological Responses to First-Person Shooter Video Games," Human Communication Research 30, no. 3 (2006): 361-375.
  14. Jennings Bryant and Dorina Miron, "Excitation-Transfer Theory and Three-Factor Theory of Emotion," in Communication and Emotion: Essays in Honor of Dolf Zillmann, eds. Jennings Bryant, David Roskos-Ewldsen, and Joanne Cantor (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003).
  15. An example of better memory for news stories that have a narrative chronology can be found in Annie Lang, "Making News Memorable," Journal of Broadcasting 47, no. 1 (2003): 113-123.
  16. E. Tulving, "Episodic Memory: From Mind to Brain," Annual Review of Psychology 53 (2002): 1-25.
  17. Narrative is often discussed as providing a schema (or organized memory) by which new information is evaluated. A schema biases memory in favor of consistent information. For example, see Robert Nemeth and Robert Belli, "The Influence of Schematic Knowledge on Contradictory Versus Additive Misinformation: False Memory for Typical and Atypical Items," Journal of Applied Psychology 20, no. 5 (2006): 563-573.
  18. There is a large literature on the use of stories and narrative in business and planning. Two good examples are Peter Guber, "The Four Truths of the Storyteller," Harvard Business Review, December 2007; and Stephen Dennin, "Telling Tales," Harvard Business Review, May 2004. Also see the list of books at http://www.corpstory.com/amazon.htm.
  19. The literature on feedback and behavior is extensive and is part of several behavioral theories, including classical and operant conditioning, behavior therapy, and behavior modification. A good review of classic theories and concepts applied to business and human services is Martin Sundel and Sandra Sundel, Behavior Change in the Human Services: Behavioral and Cognitive Principles and Applications (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2005).
  20. Behavioral economists are at the forefront of studying primitive responses to reward and punishment. For example, see Andrew Caplin and Mark Dean, "Dopamine, Reward Prediction Error, and Economics," Quarterly Journal of Economics 123, no. 2 (2008): 663-701.
  21. The necessity of intrinsic rewards in long-term behavior change is a common topic in psychology. An often-cited discussion of the application of that principle in business is Alfie Kohn, "Why Incentive Plans Cannot Work," Harvard Business Review, September- October 1993. A review of the classic academic literature in this area can be found in David Kreps, "The Interaction Between Norms and Economic Incentives: Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Incentives," American Economic Review 87, no. 2 (1997): 359-364.
  22. The leading scholar in research about self-efficacy is Albert Bandura. An example of his writing that applies the concept to business is Albert Bandura, "The Evolution of Social Cognitive Theory," in Great Minds in Management: The Process of Theory Development, eds. Ken G. Smith and Michael A. Hitt (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).
  23. I. P. Pavlov, Conditional Reflexes (1927; repr., New York: Dover Publications).
  24. We suggest one review and one example experiment about reputation systems. For a review, see Paul Resnick, Ko Kuwabara, Richard Zeckhauser, and Eric Friedman, "Reputation Systems," Communications of the ACM 43, no. 12 (2000): 45-48. A good example study is Paul Resnick, Richard Zeckhauser, John Swanson, and Kate Lockwood, "The Value of Reputation on eBay: A Controlled Experiment," Experimental Economics 9, no. 2 (2006): 79-101.
  25. David Barboza, "Ogre to Slay? Outsource It to Chinese," New York Times, December 9, 2005.
  26. H. Clark and S. Brennan, "Grounding in Communication," in Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition, eds. L. B. Resnick, J. M. Levine, and S. D. Teasley (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1991).
  27. Edward Castronova, "A Test of the Law of Demand in a Virtual World: Exploring the Petri Dish Approach to Social Science," CESifo Working Paper Series no. 2355, Ifo Institute for Economic Research, Munich, 2008.
  28. The areas of activation for both real and virtual currency are associated with the same brain regions as for general processing of rewards, indicating that the particular signals of reward are not as important as the general concept of reward. For example, see R. Saxe and H. Haushofer, "For Love or Money: A Common Neural Currency for Social and Monetary Reward," Neuron 58, no. 2 (2008): 164-165.
  29. The influence in business of shared knowledge about rules is discussed in K. Van den Bos and E. A. Lind, "Uncertainty Management by Means of Fairness Judgments," in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 34, ed. M. P. Zanna (San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2002), 1-60.
  30. H. M. Lefcourt, Locus of Control: Current Trends in Theory and Research (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1982).
  31. T. Hans, "A Meta-analysis of the Effects of Adventure Programming on Locus of Control," Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 30, no. 1 (2000): 33-60.
  32. Nine of the top ten games are multiplayer games rather than solo games. See Seth Schiesel, "In the List of Top-Selling Games, Clear Evidence of a Sea Change," New York Times, February 1, 2008.
  33. Several articles in an edited volume review studies of social relationships in games. See Peter Vorderer and Jennings Bryant, eds., Playing Video Games: Motives, Responses, and Consequences (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006).
  34. H. Tajfel, ed., Social Identity and Intergroup Relations (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982).
  35. Sohye Lim and Byron Reeves, "Computer Agents Versus Avatars: Responses to Interactive Game Characters Controlled by a Computer Versus Other Player" (paper presented at the International Communication Association conference, San Francisco, CA, 2006).
  36. T. J. Peters and R. H. Waterman, In Search of Excellence (Warner Books, 1982).
  37. Bern Elliot, "Magic Quadrant for Unified Communications," Gartner RAS Core Research Note G00160407, September 2008, http://mediaproducts.gartner.com/reprints/microsoft/vol6/article1/article1.html.
  38. There is a good discussion of the definition of games in James Gee, What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).

Chapter 5

  1. Gartner, Inc., 2007. Gartner says 80 percent of active Internet users will have a second life in the virtual world by the end of 2011. Gartner Symposium ITxpo, Emerging Trends, April 24, 2007.
  2. Among the new companies that are building virtual-world places and businesses are Millions of Us and Electric Sheep.
  3. Data about virtual workers and their expected use of virtual worlds is reported in Erica Driver and Paul Jackson, "Getting Real Work Done in Virtual Worlds," Forrester Research, Inc., January 2008.
  4. Freda Matchett, Krsna, Lord or Avatara? The Relationship Between Krsna and Visnu: In the Context of the Avatara Myth as Presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana (London: Routledge, 2000).
  5. Edward Castronova, "Theory of the Avatar," http://www.cesifo-group.de/pls/guestci/download/CESifo%20Working%20Papers%202003/CESifo%20Working%20Papers%20February%202003%20/cesifo_wp863.pdf.
  6. G. Rizzolatti, L. Fogassi, and V. Gallese, "Neurophysiological Mechanism Underlying the Understanding and Imitation of Action," Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 2 (2001): 661-670.
  7. Phillip Jackson, Andrew Meltzoff, and Jean Decety, "Neural Circuits Involved in Imitation and Perspective Taking," Neuroimage 31, no. 1 (2005): 429-439.
  8. An interesting study of social insults is Naomi Eisenberger and Matthew Lieberman, "Why Rejection Hurts: A Common Neural Alarm System for Physical and Social Pain," Trends in Cognitive Science 8, no. 7 (2005): 294-300.
  9. Yawei Cheng, Andrew Meltzoff, and Jean Decety, "Motivation Modulates the Activity of the Human Mirror-Neuron System," Cerebral Cortex 17, no. 8 (2007): 1979-1986.
  10. Sohye Lim and Byron Reeves, "Being in the Game: Effects of Avatar Choice and Point of View on Arousal Responses During Play" (paper presented to the Information Systems Division of the International Communication Association, San Francisco, CA, 2007).
  11. First-person versus third-person memories are often referred to in psychology as field (third-person) versus observer (first-person) memories. The original treatment of the psychology of these differences is E. Jones and R. Nisbett, "The Actor and the Observer: Divergent Perceptions of the Causes of Behavior," in Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behavior, E. Jones et al. (Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press, 1971), 79-94.
  12. Recent studies have shown that perspective differences can even cause changes in behavior, with third-person imaging more likely to cause people to perform the behavior being imaged; see L. Libby, E. Shaeffer, R. Eibach, and J. Slemmer, "Picture Yourself at the Polls: Visual Perspective in Mental Imagery Affects Self-Perception and Behavior," Psychological Science 18, no. 3 (2007): 199-203.
  13. R. Friedman and S. Currall, "Conflict Escalation: Dispute Exacerbating Elements of E-mail Communication Conflict," Human Relations 56, no. 11 (2003): 1325-1347. See also M. Markus, "Finding a Happy Medium: Explaining the Negative Effects of Electronic Communication on Social Life at Work," ACM Transactions on Information Systems 12, no. 2 (2003): 119-149.
  14. The project described here, "It Doesn't Matter If You're Black or White," was conducted in a Stanford course (Media Psychology, Prof. Byron Reeves) and was conducted by Phillip Garland, Vanessa Vega, Qian Ying Wang, and Michelle Won in 2004.
  15. Several studies about race and interpersonal communication are reviewed in Mark Knapp and John Daly, eds., Handbook of Interpersonal Communication, 3rd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2002).
  16. See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=obCHKPYHuhA. There is also a great avatar commercial about "making money" as the point of innovation; see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v373r0to8Pk.
  17. The IBM guidelines for virtual employees can be viewed on the IBM website at http://domino.research.ibm.com/comm/research_projects.nsf/pages/virtualworlds.IBMVirtualWorldGuidelines.html.
  18. This is a reference to the classic text by Dale Carnegie, How to Win Friends and Influence People (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1936).
  19. R. Guadagno, J. Blascovich, J. N. Bailenson, and C. McCall, "Virtual Humans and Persuasion: The Effects of Agency and Behavioral Realism," Media Psychology 10 (2007): 1-22.
  20. J. Bailenson and N. Yee, "Virtual Interpersonal Touch: Haptic Interaction and Copresence in Collaborative Virtual Environments," Multimedia Tools and Applications 37 (2008): 5-14.
  21. J. N. Bailenson, N. Yee, D. Merget, and R. Schroeder, "The Effect of Behavioral Realism and Form Realism of Real-Time Avatar Faces on Verbal Disclosure, Nonverbal Disclosure, Emotion Recognition, and Copresence in Dyadic Interaction," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 15, no. 4 (2006): 359-372.
  22. J. N. Bailenson, K. R. Swinth, C. L. Hoyt, S. Persky, A. Dimov, and J. Blascovich, "The Independent and Interactive Effects of Embodied Agent Appearance and Behavior on Self-Report, Cognitive, and Behavioral Markers of Copresence in Immersive Virtual Environments," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 14 (2005): 379-393.
  23. Joseph Cappella, "The Biological Origins of Automated Patterns of Human Interaction," Communication Theory 1, no. 1 (1991): 4-35.
  24. J. N. Bailenson, A. C. Beall, and J. Blascovich, "Mutual Gaze and Task Performance in Shared Virtual Environments," Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation 13 (2002): 1-8.
  25. Edward Hall and Mildred Reed Hall, Understanding Cultural Differences (Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 1990).
  26. Nick Yee, Jeremy Bailenson, Mark Urbanek, Francis Chang, and Dan Merget, "The Unbearable Likeness of Being Digital: The Persistence of. Nonverbal Social Norms in Online Virtual Environments," CyberPsychology and Behavior 10, no. 1 (2007): 115-121.
  27. Stewart McCann, "Simple Method for Predicting American Presidential Greatness from Victory Margin in Popular Vote," Journal of Social Psychology 145, no. 3 (2005): 287-298.

Chapter 6

  1. Attributed by Thomas Friedman to economist Paul Romer (see http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/20/opinion/20friedman.html and used by many others http://theenergycollective.com/TheEnergyCollective/30890.
  2. Edward Castronova, Synthetic Worlds (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005).
  3. Julian Dibbell, "MUD Money: A Talk on Virtual Value and, Incidentally, the Value of the Virtual" (paper presented at the Stages of the Virtual conference, Rutgers University Center for the Critical Analysis of Contemporary Culture, April 1995), http://www.juliandibbell.com/texts/mudmoney.html.
  4. Castronova, Synthetic Worlds, 175.
  5. Claude Hermann Walter Johns and T. Clark, Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts and Letters (New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1904). See also Philip Henry Gosse, Assyria: Her Manners and Customs, Arts and Arms: Restored from Her Monuments (London: Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, 1852), 610.
  6. Jack Weatherford, The History of Money: From Sandstone to Cyberspace (New York: Three Rivers Press, 1997).
  7. In addition to Castronova's previously cited book (Synthetic Worlds), there are numerous websites and conferences on this topic. One of each that we like are http://terranova.blogs.com and the Virtual Goods Summits held in 2007 and 2008 (see http://vgsummit2008.com).
  8. Edward Castronova, "Virtual Worlds: A First-Hand Account of the Market and Society on the Cyberian Frontier," CESifo Working Paper Series no. 618, Ifo Institute for Economic Research, Munich, 2001.
  9. Julian Dibbell, Play Money: Or, How I Quit My Day Job and Made Millions Trading Virtual Loot (New York: Basic Books, 2006).
  10. A good example of a game currency trading service is IGE (www.ige.com). Since 2001, it has been one of the larger networks for trading virtual currencies and game assets. It estimates that by 2009, the market for virtual assets will overcome the primary market for game subscriptions, estimated to become $7 billion.
  11. Linden Lab (makers of Second Life) now offers a marketplace platform (The LindeX) that facilitates the purchase and sale of Linden dollars. The details are at http://lindenlab.com/pressroom/general/factsheets/economics.
  12. Castronova, Synthetic Worlds, chapter 8.
  13. 1Thomas Malone, "Bringing the Market Inside," Harvard Business Review, April 2004. See also Liisa Välikangas and Gary Hamel, "Internal Markets: Emerging Governance Structures for Innovation" (paper presented at the Strategic Management Society conference, San Francisco, CA, 2001), http://www.strategos.com/articles/internalmkts/markets4.htm.
  14. Lowell Bryan, Claudia Joyce, and Leigh M. Weiss, "Making a Market in Talent: A 21st-Century Company Should Put as Much Effort into Developing Its Talented Employees as It Puts into Recruiting Them," McKinsey Quarterly, May 2006.
  15. Thomas Malone, The Future of Work: How the New Order of Business Will Shape Your Organization, Your Management Style, and Your Life (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004).
  16. Described briefly in Labnotes from the London School of Economics, issue no. 9, September 2008, http://www.managementlab.org/files/LabNotes9.pdf, and and subsequently by Gary Hamel, "Moon Shots for Management," Harvard Business Review, February, 2009.
  17. James Surowiecki, The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How (New York: Doubleday, 2004).
  18. Scott Page, The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007).
  19. Jeff Howe, Crowdsourcing: Why the Power of the Crowd Is Driving the Future of Business (New York: Crown Business, 2008).
  20. Bo Cowgill, Justin Wolfers, and Eric Zitzewitz, "Using Prediction Markets to Track Information Flows: Evidence from Google," January 6, 2008, http://bocowgill.com/GooglePredictionMarketPaper.pdf.
  21. 1The source for the actual comments, which offer a feast of insight into the potential value of prediction markets, is Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Concept Release on the Appropriate Regulatory Treatment of Event Contracts, Federal Register 73, no. 89 (May 7, 2008), 25669.
  22. The prediction market at Google is described in Cowgill, Wolfers, and Zitzewitz, "Using Prediction Markets to Track Information Flows."
  23. Cowgill, Wolfers, and Zitzewitz, "Using Prediction Markets to Track Information Flows."
  24. We designed the currency system (called Attent) with colleagues at Seriosity, Inc. The ideas are described in David Abecassis, Helen Cheng, Mark Phillips, Leighton Read, Byron Reeves, Simon Roy, and Daniel Rubin, "Attention Economy for Attention to Messages, Tasks and Resources," US Patent 7,240,826, issued July 10, 2007.
  25. Thomas Davenport and John Beck, The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business (Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2002).
  26. Z. D. Zeldes, D. Sward, and S. Louchheim, "Infomania: Why We Can't Afford to Ignore It Any Longer," First Monday 12, no. 8 (August 2007), http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue12_8/zeldes/.
  27. The synthetic currency software is Attent, which is described and available at www.seriosity.com.
  28. Byron Reeves, Simon Roy, Brian Gorman, and Teresa Morley, "A Marketplace for Attention: Responses to a Synthetic Currency Used to Signal Information Importance," First Monday 13, no. 5 (May 2008).

Chapter 7

  1. For a good review of the economies of DKP systems, see Edward Castronova and Joshua Fairfield, "Dragon Kill Points: A Summary Whitepaper," working paper, Indiana University, January 2007, http://ssrn.com/abstract=958945.
  2. The ideas about a group of intimates engaging strangers, cited in Castronova and Fairfield, "Dragon Kill Points," was first proposed in Jacob Strahilevitz , "Social Norms from Close-Knit Groups to Loose-Knit Groups," University of Chicago Law Review 70 (2003): 359-360.
  3. Jim Murphy and Jennifer Hackbush, "The Knowledge Management Spending Report, 2007-2008: The Market Hits $73B," AMR Research, 2007. Abstract available at http://knowledgemanagement.wordpress.com/2007/09/28/survey-on-knowledge-management- spending-for-2008/.
  4. Margaret Neale, "Information Technology as a Jealous Mistress: Competition for Knowledge Between Individuals and Organization," Management Information System Quarterly 27 (2003): 265-287.
  5. Sirkka L. Jarvenpaa, Kathleen Knoll, and Dorothy E. Leidner, "Is Anyone Out There? Antecedents of Trust in Global Virtual Teams," Journal of Management Information Systems 14, no. 4 (1998).
  6. Jeremy B. Williams, "Foiling the Free Riders: Early Experience with Compulsory Peer Assessment at an Online Business School," Universitas 21 Global working paper, 2005. Manuscript available at http://www.u21global.edu.sg/PartnerAdmin/ViewContent?module=DOCUMENTLIBRARY&oid=14105. This paper reports on the first twelve months' experience of a compulsory peer assessment system that represents a modest attempt to install such a reporting system, with the goal of calling the free riders to account.
  7. Don Tapscott and Anthony Williams, Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything (New York: Portfolio, 2006).
  8. The distinctions between tacit and explicit knowledge are widely used in the organizational literature, as reviewed in Neale, "Information Technology as a Jealous Mistress." Several McKinsey & Company publications cited in chapter 6 also deal with this topic.
  9. There are several lists of collaboration principles that are similar. This list borrows from Lynda Gratton and Tamara Erickson, "Eight Ways to Build Collaborative Teams," Harvard Business Review, November 2007.
  10. Byron Reeves and Thomas Malone, with Nick Yee, Helen Cheng, David Abecassis, Thomas Cadwell, Macy Abbey, James Scarborough, Leighton Read, and Simon Roy, "Leadership in Games and at Work: Implications for the Enterprise of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games," Seriosity, 2007, http://www.seriosity.com.
  11. J. Williams, "Foiling the Free Riders: Early Experience with Compulsory Peer Assessment at an Online Business School.," Universitas 21 Global, working paper No. 012/2005.
  12. Paul Ingrassa, "How Detroit Drove into a Ditch," Wall Street Journal, October 25, 2008, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122488710556068177.html.
  13. L. Gratton and T.J. Erickson, "Eight Ways to Build Collaborative Teams." Harvard Business Review, November, 2007.
  14. Larry Huston and Nabil Sakkab, "Connect and Develop: Inside Procter and Gamble's New Model for Innovation," Harvard Business Review, March 2006.
  15. Alph Bingham has speculated on how classifications by nonexperts could be valuable in the medical setting in personal communication and as reported at http://crowdsourcing.typepad.com/cs/2008/09/crowdsourcing-m.html. Our discussion of networks is based on his review.
  16. This is a point made by James Surowiecki in The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How (New York: Doubleday, 2004).
  17. Here is a bibliography not limited to medical diagnosis: http://www.galaxy.gmu.edu/ACAS/ACAS00-02/ACAS00ShortCourse/aggbib.pdf
  18. B. Metcalfe, "Metcalfe's Law: A Network Becomes More Valuable as It Reaches More Users," Infoworld, October 2, 1995.
  19. D. Reed, "That Sneaky Exponential: Beyond Metcalfe's Law to the Power of Community Building," 2002, http://www.reed.com/papers/gfn/reedslaw.html.

Chapter 8

  1. These comments are from player comments collected by Nick Yee and are part of the Daedalus Project (http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001467.php).
  2. The discussion of real-world and game leadership in this chapter is taken from a project done for the IBM Global Innovation Summit. The project leaders were Thomas Malone and Byron Reeves. The three sources that were used in chapter 8 are listed below. The comments about similarities and differences are taken from the first unpublished paper listed.

    Byron Reeves and Thomas Malone, with Nick Yee, Helen Cheng, David Abecassis, Thomas Cadwell, Macy Abby, James Scarborough, Leighton Read, and Simon Roy, "Leadership in Games and at Work: Implications for the Enterprise of Massively Multiplay Online Role Playing Games," Seriosity, 2007, http://www.seriosity.com/leadership.html.

    IBM and Seriosity, "Virtual Worlds, Real Leaders: Online Games Put the Future of Business Leadership on Display," a Global Innovation Outlook 2.0 report, 2007, http://www.seriosity.com/leadership.html.

    Byron Reeves, Thomas Malone, and Tony O'Driscoll, "Leadership's Online Labs," Harvard Business Review, May 2008.

  3. The Sloan leadership model was developed by Deborah Ancona, Thomas Malone, Wanda Orlikowski, and Peter Senge at the MIT Sloan School of Management. The model has been described in several publications, including the following: D. Ancona, "Leadership in an Age of Uncertainty," in Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes, 2nd ed., eds. Deborah Ancona, Thomas Kochan, Maureen Scully, John Van Maanen, and Eleanor Westney (Cincinnati, OH: South Western College Publishing, 1999); Thomas Malone, The Future of Work (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004), 162-167; and D. Ancona, T. W. Malone, W. J. Orlikowski, and P. Senge, "In Praise of the Incomplete Leader," Harvard Business Review, February 2007.
  4. The concept of sensemaking, as we use it here, was developed by Karl Weick. See K. Weick, Making Sense of the Organization (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2001).
  5. C. Argyris and D. Schon, Organizational Learning II: Theory, Method, and Practice (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1996).
  6. A description of the methods used in the research can be found in Reeves and Malone, with Yee, Cheng, Abecassis, Cadwell, Abby, Scarborough, Read, and Roy, "Leadership in Games and at Work."
  7. Nick Yee, "The Demographics, Motivations, and Derived Experiences of Users of Massively Multi-User Online Graphical Environments," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 15 (2006): 309-329.
  8. A good summary of the informal learning opportunities is J. Bransford, A. Brown, and J. Pellegrino, eds., How People Learn (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000). Also see J. Bransford, B. Barron, R. Pea, A. Meltzoff, P. Kuhl, P. Bell, P. Stevens, D. Shwartz, N. Vye, B. Reeves, J. Roschelle, and N. Sabelli, "Foundations and Opportunities for an Interdisciplinary Science of Learning," in The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences, ed. K. Sawyer (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  9. J. Burton, M. Parker, B. Pleasant, and D. Van Doren, "What Is Unified Communications - And Why Should You Care?" Business Communication Review, August 2006. Available at http://www.vanguard.net/DocLib_Docs/UC_why_care_mp_dv_0608.pdf.
  10. T. J. Peters and R. H. Waterman, In Search of Excellence (New York: Harper & Row, 1982).
  11. Michael DeMarco, Eric Lesser, and Tony O'Driscoll, "Leadership in a Distributed World: Lessons from Online Gaming," IBM Institute for Business Value, 2007.

Chapter 9

  1. For a comprehensive review of this literature, see James Harter, Frank Schmidt, and Corey Keyes, "Well-Being in the Workplace and Its Relationship to Business Outcomes," in Flourishing: The Positive Person and the Good Life, eds. Corey Keyes and Jonathan Haidt (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2002), 205-224.
  2. Brian Sutton-Smith, The Ambiguity of Play (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997).
  3. The first seven of these concepts of play are taken from Sutton-Smith, The Ambiguity of Play.
  4. "Solitaire Costs Man His City Job After Bloomberg Sees Computer," New York Times, February 10, 2006, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/10/nyregion/10solitaire.html.
  5. M. Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (London: Allen and Unwin, 1930).
  6. "Games at Work May Be Good for You," BBC News, November 7, 2003, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/3247595.stm.
  7. R. Huizinga, Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture (Boston: Beacon Press, 1949).
  8. Daniel Oriesek and Jan Oliver Schwarz, Business Wargaming: Securing Corporate Value (Burlington, VT: Gower Publishing, 2008).
  9. Sun Tzu [Sunzi], The Art of War, trans. Thomas Cleary (Boston: Shamhala Publications, 1988).
  10. One good example is Aaron Brown, The Poker Face of Wall Street (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2006).
  11. Michael Zyda, "From Visual Simulation to Virtual Reality to Games," Computer 38, no. 9 (2005): 25-32.
  12. For a review of flight simulator effectiveness, see Alfred Lee, "Simulator Fidelity and Training Effectiveness," in Flight Simulation: Virtual Environments in Aviation (Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2005). For a review of medical simulations, see Lawrence Hettinger and Michael Hass, eds., Virtual and Adaptive Environments: Applications, Implications and Human Performance Issues (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003).
  13. L. Enoshsson, B. Isaksson, R. Tou, A. Kjellin, L. Hedman, T. Wredmak, and L. Tsai- Fellander, "Visuospatial Skills and Computer Game Experience Influence the Performance of Virtual Endoscopy," Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 8, no. 7 (2004): 876-882.
  14. J. Rosser, P. Lynch, L. Cuddihy, D. Gentile, J. Klonsky, and R. Merrell, "The Impact of Video Games on Training Surgeons in the 21st Century," Archives of Surgery 142, no. 2 (2007): 181-186.
  15. J. Fernandez, ed. Beyond Metaphor: The Theory of Tropes in Anthropology (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991).
  16. Sutton-Smith, Ambiguity of Play, 127.
  17. Kant's treatment of imagination is described in R. Makkreel, Imagination and Interpretation in Kant: The Hermeneutical Import of the "Critique of Judgment (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994).
  18. Andrew Caplin and Mark Dean, "Dopamine, Reward Prediction Error, and Economics," Quarterly Journal of Economics 123, no. 2 (2008): 663-701.
  19. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (New York: Harper Collins, 1990).
  20. The attributes of flow experiences are taken from Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention (New York: HarperCollins, 1996), 110-113.
  21. J. L. Sherry, "Flow and Media Enjoyment," Communication Theory 14 (2004): 392-410.
  22. Michael Sellers, "Designing the Experience of Interactive Play," in Playing Video Games, eds. P. Vorderer and J. Bryant (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2006).
  23. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Good Business: Leadership, Flow, and the Making of Meaning (New York: Penguin Books, 2003), 202-203.
  24. For a discussion of basic emotional categories, see Paul Ekman, "An Argument for Basic Emotions," Cognition and Emotion 6 (1992): 169-175.
  25. A. Lang, J. Newhagen, and B. Reeves, "Negative Video as Structure: Emotion, Attention, Capacity, and Memory," Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 40 (1996). Also see S. Geiger and B. Reeves, "The Effects of Scene Changes and Semantic Relatedness on Attention to Television," Communication Research 20 (1993): 155-175.
  26. Ann Lang, "How Story Impacts Emotional, Motivational and Physiological Responses to First-Person Shooter Video Games," Human Communication Research 30, no. 3 (2006): 361-375.
  27. Mary Beth Oliver, "Mood Management and Selective Exposure," in Communication and Emotion, eds. Jennings Bryant, David Roskos-Ewoldsen, and Joanne Cantor (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003).
  28. R. J. Davidson, "Emotion and Affective Style: Affective Substrates," Psychological Science 3, no. 1 (1992): 39-43.
  29. See chapter 10 ("Negativity") in Byron Reeves and Clifford Nass, The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television and New Media Like Real People and Places (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
  30. We are currently testing this exact sequence using avatars experienced during brain functional magnetic resonance imaging. The preliminary results have been reported at a neuroscience conference: J. Chen, D. Shohamy, V. Ross, B. Reeves, and A. Wagner, "The Impact of Social Belief on the Neurophysiology of Learning and Memory" (paper presented at the Society for Neuroscience conference, Washington, DC, 2008).
  31. For a review of the study of informal learning in the learning sciences, see J. Bransford, B. Barron, R. Pea, A. Meltzoff, P. Kuhl, P. Bell, P. Stevens, D. Shwartz, N. Vye, B. Reeves, J. Roschelle, and N. Sabelli, "Foundations and Opportunities for an Interdisciplinary Science of Learning," in The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences, ed. K. Sawyer (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  32. For examples related to math learning, see K. Himmelberger and D. Schwartz, "It's a Homerun! Using Mathematical Discourse to Support the Learning of Statistics," Mathematics Teacher 101, no. 4 (2007): 250-256.
  33. D. Schwartz, J. Bransford, and D. Sears, "Efficiency and Innovation in Transfer," in Transfer of Learning from a Modern Multidisciplinary Perspective, ed. J. Mestre (Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, 2005), 1-51.

Chapter 10

  1. In addition to following the dot, the actual experiment also asked people to lead and to just watch. Results were similar to those about the instruction to lead that are described here.
  2. T. Chaminade, A.N. Meltzoff, and J. Decety, "Brain Mechanisms for Awareness of Interacting with an Intentional Agent: An fMRI Study." Center for Mind, Brain & Learning, University of Washington, 2004.
  3. Byron Reeves and Sohye Lim, "Computer Agents Versus Avatars: Responses to Interactive Game Characters Controlled by a Computer or Other Player" (paper presented to the International Communication Association conference, San Francisco, CA, 2006).
  4. Heart rate acceleration is only one measure of arousal and can be associated with both higher and lower arousal. In this experiment, we also assessed skin conductance levels (i.e., the amount of moisture in the skin as a result of arousal) and were able to determine that the increased heart rate was attributable to higher physiological arousal.
  5. Byron Reeves and Clifford Nass, The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television and New Media Like Real People and Places (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
  6. These examples are all reviewed in Reeves and Nass, The Media Equation.
  7. From the 1979 movie Being There, adapted from the 1971 novel written by Jerzy Kosinksi.
  8. M. Lombard and T. Ditton, "At the Heart of It All: The Concept of Presence," Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3, no. 2 (1997).
  9. For example, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments and the Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication, Presence-Research.org (www.presence-research.org), and the International Society for Presence Research.
  10. For example, the Instant Messaging and Presence Service (IMPS) of the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) or the Session initiation protocol for Instant Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions (SIMPLE) sponsored by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) (we're not kidding). See http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/simple-charter.html.
  11. Jonathan Steuer, "Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence," Journal of Communication 42, no. 2 (1992): 73-93.
  12. D. Perani, F. Fazio, N. Borghese, M. Tettamanti, S. Ferrari, J. Decety, and M. Gillardi, "Different Brain Correlates for Watching Real and Virtual Hand Actions," Neuroimage 14, no. 3 (2001): 749-758.
  13. B. Reeves, A. Lang, E. Y. Kim, and D. Tatar, "The Effects of Screen Size and Message Content on Arousal and Attention," Media Psychology 1, no. 1 (1999): 49-67.
  14. W. R. Neuman, A. Crigler, and V. Bove, "Television Sound and Viewer Perceptions," Proceedings of the Joint IEEE/Audio Engineering Society, February 1991.
  15. An example study that looks at proprioception is M. Mine, F. Brooks, and C. Sequin, "Moving Objects in Space: Exploiting Proprioception in Virtual-Environment Interaction," Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics, 1997, 19-26.
  16. See, for example, P. Kenny, A. Hartholt, J. Gratch, W. Swartout, D. Traum, S. Marsella, and D. Piepol, "Building Interactive Virtual Humans for Training Environments," Proceedings of I/ITSEC, November 2007.
  17. Jonathan Steuer, "Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence," Journal of Communication 42, no. 2 (1992): 73-93.
  18. K. Wise and B. Reeves, "The Effect of User Control on the Cognitive and Emotional Processing of Pictures," Media Psychology 9 (2007): 549-566.
  19. Keith Devlin, "Media X: The New Liberal Arts?" On the Horizon 10, no. 2 (2002): 15-17.
  20. For example descriptions of play in MUDs, see Sherry Turikle, "Constructions and Reconstructions of Self in Virtual Reality: Playing in the MUDs," Mind, Culture and Activity 1, no. 3 (1994): 158-167.
  21. Paul Messaris, Visual "Literacy": Image, Mind and Reality (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994).
  22. David Weaver, Randal Beam, Bonnie Brownlee, Paul Voakes, and Cleveland Wilhoit, The American Journalist in the 21st Century (Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 2007).
  23. See, for example, Diana Mutz and Byron Reeves, "The New Videomalaise: Effects of Televised Incivility on Political Trust," American Political Science Review 99, no. 1 (2005): 1-15.
  24. James Beniger, The Control Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986).
  25. Craig Anderson and Brad Bushman, "Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affects, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature," Psychological Science 12, no. 5 (2002): 353-359. An update of this analysis appears in Craig Anderson, "An Update on the Effects of Playing Violent Video Games," Journal of Adolescence 27 (2004): 113-122.
  26. S. Sherry, "The Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Meta-analysis," Human Communication Research 27, no. 3 (2001): 409-431.
  27. Ann Lang, "How Story Impacts Emotional, Motivational and Physiological Responses to First-Person Shooter Video Games," Human Communication Research 30, no. 3 (2006): 361-375.
  28. M. D. Griffiths and I. Dancaster, "The Effect of Type A Personality on Physiological Arousal While Playing Computer Games," Addictive Behaviors 20, no. 4 (1995): 543-548.
  29. Michelle Fleming and Debra Rick Wood, "Effects of Violent Versus Nonviolent Video Games on Children's Arousal, Aggressive Mood and Positive Mood," Journal of Applied Social Psychology 31, no. 10 (2006): 2047-2071.
  30. Richard Davidson, "Dysfunction in the Neural Circuitry of Emotion Regulation: A Possible Prelude to Violence," Science 289, no. 5479 (2000): 591-594.
  31. Rene Weber, Ute Ritterfeld, and Klaus Mathlak, "Does Playing Violent Video Games Induce Aggression? Empirical Evidence of a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study," Media Psychology 8, no. 1 (2006): 39-60.
  32. The survey by Nick Yee regarding addiction to games is reported http://www.cbc.ca/consumers/market/files/health/everquest/study1.pdf
  33. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
  34. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
  35. Robert Kubey, "Television Addiction Is No Mere Metaphor," Scientific American, February 22, 2002.
  36. For an excellent treatment of gender portrayals in early computer games, see Justine Cassell and Henry Jenkins, eds., From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender in Computer Games (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998).
  37. Children Now, Fair Play: Violence, Gender, and Race in Video Games (Oakland, CA: Children Now, 2001), http://publications.childrennow.org/assets/pdf/cmp/fairplay/fairplay-video-01.pdf.
  38. Karen Dill and Kathryn Thill, "Video Game Characters and the Socialization of Gender Roles: Young People's Perceptions Mirror Sexist Media Depictions," Sex Roles 57, no. 11-12 (2006): 851-864.
  39. Gender balance in Second Life, for example, is reported at the Metaverse Journal at http://www.metaversejournal.com/2007/03/31/the-sl-gender-balance-change-continues/.
  40. Kwan Lee and Wei Peng, "What Do We Know About Social and Psychological Effects of Computer Games? A Comprehensive Review of the Current Literature," in Playing Video Games, eds. Peter Vodoror and Jennings Bryant (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006).
  41. This evidence is reviewed in Lee and Peng, "What Do We Know?"
  42. Edward Castronova, "The Price of 'Man' and 'Woman': A Hedonic Pricing Model of Avatar Attributes in a Synthetic World," CESifo Working Paper Series no. 957, Ifo Institute for Economic Research, Munich, June 2003. Available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=415043.
  43. Leonard Epstein, James Roemmich, Jodie Bobinson, Rocco Paluch, Dana Winiewicz, and Janene Fuerch, "A Randomized Trial of the Effects of Reducing Television Viewing and Computer Use on Body Mass Index in Young Children," Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 162, no. 3 (2008): 239-245.
  44. D. Kasteleijn-Nolst, A. da Silva, S. Ricci, C. Binnie, G. Rubboli, C. Tassinari, and J. Segers, "Video Game Epilepsy: A European Study," Epilepsia 40 (1999): 70-74.
  45. Eugenia Kolasinski, "Simulator Sickness in Virtual Environments," technical report 1027, U.S. Army Research Institute, May 1995.
  46. Deborah Lieberman, "Management of Chronic Pediatric Diseases with Interactive Health Games: Theory and Research Findings," Journal of Ambulatory Care Management 24, no. 1 (2001): 26-38.
  47. For example, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation has recently funded several new studies in its program on health games research.
  48. L. Read, C. Carlin, I. Greenberg, and G. Blackburn, The Original Boston Computer Diet (Boston: Scarborough Systems, 1985).
  49. For uses in chemotherapy and psychotherapy, see M. Griffiths, "The Therapeutic Use of Videogames in Childhood and Adolescents," Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 8, no. 4 (2003): 547-554. For biofeedback training, see A. Pope and E. Bogart, "Extended Attention Span Training System: Video Game Neurotherapy for Attention Deficit Disorder," Children Study Journal 26, no. 1 (1996): 39-50. For the treatment of phobias, see B. Wiederhold, "The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society," CyberPsychology and Behavior 6, no. 3 (2003): 225-227. For memory training, see B. Drew and J. Walters, "Video Games: Utilization of a Novel Strategy to Improve Perceptual Motor Skills and Cognitive Functioning in the Non-institutionalized Elderly," Cognitive Rehabilitation 4 (1986): 31-36.
  50. C. Green and D. Bavelier, "Action Video Game Modifies Visual Selective Attention," Nature 423 (2003): 534-537.
  51. For examples of military games, see D. Coleman, "PC Gaming and Simulation Supports Training," Proceedings of United States Naval Institute 127 (2001), 73-75.
  52. P. McClurg and C. Chaille, "Computer Games: Environments for Developing Spatial Cognition?" Journal of Educational Computing Research 3 (1987): 95-111. Also see K. Subrahmanyam and P. Greenfield, "Becoming a Better Student with Computer Games," Journal of Communication 42 (1987): 73-93.
  53. P. Greenfield, G. Brannon, and D. Lohr, "Two-Dimensional Representation of Movement Through Three-Dimensional Space: The Role of Video Game Expertise," Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 1 (1994): 87-103.
  54. D. Walsh, "Interactive Violence and Children: Testimony Submitted to the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, United States," March 21, 2000.
  55. Brigid Barron, "Interest and Self-Sustained Learning as Catalysts of Development: A Learning Ecology Perspective," Human Development 49 (2006): 193-224.
  56. Kurt Squire and Henry Jenkins, "Harnessing the Power of Games in Education," Insight 3 (2003): 7-33.
  57. Steve Jones, Let the Games Begin: Gaming Technology and Entertainment Among College Students (Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Also available at http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_College_Gaming_Reporta.pdf.
  58. For lack of relation with popularity, see A. Sakamoto, "Video Game Use and the Development of Socio-Cognitive Abilities in Children: Three Surveys of Elementary-School Students," Journal of Applied Social Psychology 24 (1994): 21-42. For relation with the other social aspects discussed here, see K. Durkin and B. Barber, "Not So Doomed: Computer Game Play and Positive Adolescent Development," Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 23 (2002): 373-392.
  59. Reed Stevens, Tom Satwicz, and Laurie McCarthy, "In-Game, In-Room, In-World: Reconnecting Video Game Play to the Rest of Kids' Lives," in The Ecology of Games: Connecting Youth, Games, and Learning, ed. Katie Salen (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008).
  60. Data collected by Nick Yee and reported under the rubric of the Daedalus Project (http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus).

Chapter 11

  1. Milton Snoeyenbos, Robert Almeder, and James Humber, Business Ethics (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2001).
  2. The report from the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) was titled The Electronic Supervisor: New Technology, New Tensions (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987). A review of issues related to the report can be found in E. Kallman, "Electronic Monitoring of Employees: Issues and Guidelines," Journal of Systems Management 44, no. 6 (1993): 17-21.
  3. The details of Walker's proposal can be found in "Webcam Homeland," USA Today, May 26, 2003, http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/internetprivacy/2003-05-23-webcamhomeland_x.htm.
  4. Sharon Weinberger, "TSA Screening: The Video Game," Wired Blog Network, 2007, http://blog.wired.com/defense/2007/08/tsa-screening-t.html.
  5. R. Brasington, "Nintendinitis," New England Journal of Medicine 322 (1990): 1473-1474; J. Bonis, "Acute Wiiitis," New England Journal of Medicine 356 (2007): 2431-2432.
  6. Office of Technology Assessment, The Electronic Supervisor.
  7. Lawrence Archer, "I Saw What You Did and I Know Who You Are," Canadian Business, November 1995 cited in OTA, The Electronic Supervisor.
  8. For a review of the relationship between stress and performance, see Anthony Gaillard, "Concentration, Stress and Performance," in Performance Under Stress, eds. Peter Hancock and James Szalma (Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2008).
  9. T. Egan, "Air Traffic Controllers Fight Stress and Savor It," New York Times, February 10, 1991.
  10. Information about the twelve-step program for possible game addiction can be found at http://www.olganon.org.

Chapter 12

  1. See the list of books at http://www.corpstory.com/amazon.htm.
  2. See United States Department of Defense, "The United States Military Enlisted Rank Insignia," http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/insignias/enlisted.html.
  3. Z. D. Zeldes, D. Sward, and S. Louchheim, "Infomania: Why We Can't Afford to Ignore It Any Longer," First Monday 12, no. 8 (2007), http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue12_8/zeldes/.
  4. See references compiled by David Levy at http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1065385.1065450#abstract.
  5. Michael DeMarco, Eric Lesser, and Tony O'Driscoll, "Leadership in a Distributed World: Lessons from Online Gaming," IBM Institute for Business Value, 2007.
  6. Raf Koster has an extensive bibliography on his personal website: http://www.raphkoster.com/gaming/links.shtml. Several reading lists from those most active in game design are available at http://terranova.blogs.com/. Especially see the section entitled "Research Report Rolodex." A new book on games and business that contains many additional examples of how games can be used to relate to customers and to recruit and train employees is Changing the Game, by David Edery and Ethan Mollick (Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press, 2009).
  7. Information about the Serious Games Initiative is available at http://www.seriousgames.org/index2.html. For a comprehensive taxonomy of serious games, see a slide deck by Ben Sawyer at http://www.managementlab.org/files/LabNotes10.pdf.



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